Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time.
Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an enemy, e.
Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any.
Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any.
Writing the introduction In the introduction, you should: You may want to search through your finished document for "ly-"; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes.
Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all.
Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember.
For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together.
One common approach is to use author-date citations like " Smith, Wu, and Tong ", but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine.
Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist, as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence.
Others argue that omitting "I" and "we" results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct "We did X" sentences.
In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e. However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses i. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between "chips" and "eggs" as between "ham" and "chips".
Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases groups of several words forming a unithyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous.
In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in "ly", though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial "ly" words like "early" as in the correct examples "an early-rising rooster" or "an early-rising English-language learner".
That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people.ACOG's Clinical Guidelines The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has the following clinical guidelines related to deliveries before 39 weeks: Definition of.
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Kennedy et al's commentary presents.Download